DÍEZ DE VELASCO, Francisco (Institute of Political
and Social Sciences, University of La Laguna) email@example.com
The configuration of the present multicultural and multireligious context of coexistence in Spain is recent (the bases are posed in the Spanish Constitution of 1978). In the transformation from a system based on the establishment of a national-official religion to a multireligious one (a process under construction), the Buddhism plays an interesting role. Buddhism is the first religion not related to the Abrahamic heritage in Spain to be recognized as "de notorio arraigo", and seems to be an interesting point of starting in a reflection focused on the social legitimisation, visibilization and stigmatization of religious difference in Spain. We will use this example as a guide in the study of the complexities of the construction of the juridical (and scholarly) concept of religious minorities in Spain (in opposition to majority).
Buddhist flag in tge roof of Arya Marga Sangha, LPGC (Cnary Islands)
The presentation intends to propose the example of the Buddhism as a guide in the study of the complexities of the construction of the juridical (and scholarly) concept of religious minorities in Spain (in opposition to majority)
Buddhism in Spain is a religious minority with 300 groups of practice and some 40.000-60.000 practitioners (around 200.000 if we use less strict criteria of religious belonging)
The first stable groups begin in 1977... a recent religion in Spain (despite previous individual adherences to Buddhism)...
¿Is it an invisible religion in Spain?
SOME VERY VISIBLE PROPOSALS
Stupa of Benalmádena (Málaga) (Diamondway) 33 meters high
Sakya Drogön Ling in Denia (Alicante) (Sakyapa)
History as Spaniards: children of a particular religious history, and is based on the secular renunciation of difference, which distorts views.
DOUBLE INVISIBILIZATION of the Religious minorities
from the two MAJORITIES
-The one that we might call National-Catholic, which can also generally be described as anti-pluralistic, denying religious diversity and restricting the non-Catholic (in the franquist semantic defined symbolically as "a-catholic") to the private (almost intimate) sphere. In this case, we need to dismantle the binomial religious diversity equals foreignness / Catholic equals Spanishness, which would lead to judging “other” religions as alien, strange proposals, and, in a final analysis, non-Spanish.
-On the other hand, we might also have to avert an
invisibilization to a certain extent similar to the former in its consequences,
which we could define as non-religious (post-religious or even anti-religious)
and the child of European modernity, but which in Spain also combines with
a “traditional” anticlericalism (with which more than a few Catholics sympathize).
It is based on the imaginary of the modern invisibilization of religions
(all reduced to the private sphere), but in Spain, in particular, it combines
with previously mentioned factors of constraining “Spanishness” to the
binomial Catholic/Anti-Catholic, where religion is concerned. This position
also prefers not to see religions in plural. Occasionally it may visibilize
Catholicism, if not as a faith experienced, at least as a shared heritage
(or a nemesis or ridiculous hindrance), but usually turns its unseeing
gaze on “the minority” (concealed through a lack of references and the
desire to acquire them).
The construction of the legal frame
That arranges the legal-religious field into five categories, revealing a context branded by differences, inequalities and privileges.
Constitución Española, 1978
Art. 16.3:“There will be no state religion. The public
authorities shall take into account the religious beliefs of Spanish society
and shall maintain consequent links of co-operation with the Catholic Church
and other faiths”.
1) The highest level is held by Catholicism, explicitly recognized in the Constitution in article 16.3. These relations are based on international agreements signed between the Spanish State and the Holy See in 1979. With notable privileges in the educational sphere and in the financing.
2)On the second level are the three religions (or confessions)
that signed co-operation agreements with the Spanish State in 1992, Evangelical
Christianity, Judaism and Islam throught their federations:
-FEREDE (Federación de Entidades Evangélicas de España).
-FCIE (Federación de Comunidades Israelitas de España) today the FCJE (Federación de Comunidades Judías de España).
-CIE (Comisión Islámica de España).
The confessions with agreements enjoy certain privileges, for example, state financing and confessional religious education.
3) The third level is occupied by religious groups
that have been recognized by the Comisión Asesora de Libertad Religiosa
of the Ministry of Justice as "de notorio arraigo" (well known faith or
clearly taken root), but with no agreements. At present, there are three
confessions at this level:
-Mormons since 2003
-Jehovah’s Witnesses, since 2006
-Buddhism, through the Federación de Comunidades Budistas de España since 2007.
Buddhism is the first religion not related to the Abrahamic heritage in Spain to be recognized as "de notorio arraigo".
Being recognized as a well-known faith does not include notable privileges, such as state financing or being included in the educational system.
-Orthodox Church, since 2010
4) On the fourth level are the religious groups that are entered in the "Registro de Confesiones Minoritarias" of the Ministry of Justice but with no subsequent agreements or recognitions. Registration entails greater protection of the places of worship registered and also a way of simplifying many of the varying types of administrative procedures.
5) The fifth level is for groups that, despite defining themselves as religious entities or churches, are not registered (by not being considered of interest or for some other reason), or the registration procedure has not been fully completed for a number of reasons (of an administrative nature) by the Ministry of Justice. Therefore, from a legal perspective, they are not correctly visibilized as such, but are generally regarded as cultural associations.
The Buddhism position seems to be an interesting point of starting in a reflection focused on the social legitimisation, visibilization and stigmatization of religious difference in Spain. The configuration of a multicultural and multi-religious context of coexistence in Spain is recent and under construction (the bases are posed in the Constitution of 1978).
The LEGAL bases: INTERLOCUTION
BUDDHIST FEDERATION (FCBE: Federación de Comunidades
Budistas de España)
Inscription 317-SG/D - 10-03-1995
Notorio Arraigo (Well Known Faith or clearly taken root) october 2007
NETWORK EVIDENCED 65 groups registered
Registration in the Ministry of Justice
|061-SG/A KARMA KAGYU DEL BUDISMO TIBETANO (03/1982) Barcelona
082-SG/A COMUNIDAD RELIGIOSA DAG SHANG KAGYU (06/1985) Graus, Huesca
107-SG/A ORDEN BUDISTA OCCIDENTAL (= 451-SG/C) (05/1988) Benimatell, Alicante
156-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA SOTO ZEN (06/1990) Casas del Río, Valencia
158-SG/A COMUNIDAD PARA LA PRESERVACION DE LA TRADICION MAHAYANA (06/1990) Valencia
202-SG/A NICHIREN SHOSHU MYOSHOJI (10/1991) Madrid
267-SG/A SOKA GAKKAI DE ESPAÑA (01/1994) Madrid
273-SG/A SAKYA TASHI LING (03/1994) Olivella, Barcelona
277-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA ZEN DEL CAMINO ABIERTO (04/1994) Válor, Granada
317-SG/D FEDERACIÓN DE COMUNIDADES BUDISTAS DE ESPAÑA (03/1995) Madrid
354-SG/C SHENPHEN TERSAR DZONG (= 622-SG/A) (10/1995) Valencia
408-SG/C CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS BUDISTAS TIBETANOS GANDEN CHOELING (06/1966) Ciutadella, Baleares
423-SG/C SAKYA DROGÖN LING (09/1997) Pedreguer, Alicante
440-SG/C ASOCIACION BUDISTA DE LA LUZ DE BUDA (03/1998) Madrid
451-SG/C ASOCIACIÓN AMIGOS DE LA ORDEN BUDISTA OCCIDENTAL-VALENCIA (= 107SG/A) (07/1998) Valencia
538-SG/A JODO SHINSHU ISSHIN IKKO HA DE ESPAÑA (01/2001) Sevilla
622-SG/A NYIGMA TERSAR (= 354-SG/C) (07/2002) Valencia
623-SG/A SAKYA TRINLEY LING (07/2002) Vall d’Alba, Castellón
664-SG/A SAKYA GEPHEL LING (04/2003) Barcelona
745-SG/A TARA (07/2004) Barcelona
767-SG/A THUBTEN DHARGYE LING (11/2004) Madrid
796-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO CHAKRASAMVARA (02/2005) Sevilla
820-SG/A CHAN SSU LUN (CHAN DE LOS CUATRO TRATADOS) (06/2005) Pla de Manlleu, Tarragona
866-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA KADAMPA MAHAKARUNA (12/2005) Castellón
946-SG/A KMC ESPAÑA (CENTRO DE MEDITACIÓN KADAMPA) (06/2006) Alhaurín el Grande, Málaga
969-SG/A TRADICION BUDADHARMA ZEN SOTO (07/2006) Valencia
1044-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA VAJRAYANA (10/2006) Majadahonda, Madrid
1080-SG/A INTERNATIONAL BUDDHIST PROGRESS SOCIETY (SPAIN) (12/2006) Madrid
1228-SG/A ARYA MARGA SANGHA (09/2007) Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
1229-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA SUGATA (09/2007) Murcia
1230-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA MAHAMUDRA (09/2007) Sevilla
1344-SG/A CENTRE BUDISTA DHARMA KADAM (02/2008) Es Mercadal, Baleares
1435-SG/A CENTRO DE RETIROS: CHÖKHORLING.-"EL JARDÍN DE LA RUEDA DEL DHARMA" (04/2008) Molina del Segura, Murcia
1436-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA AMITABHA CHÖELING (04/2008) Málaga
1463-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO GANDEN CHÖELING HUELVA (05/2008) Gibraleón, Huelva
1464-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA LOCHANA (05/2008) Cádiz
1472-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA ARYADEVA (06/2008) La Laguna, Tenerife
1484-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA NAROPA (07/2008) Castellón
1524-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA POTALA (10/2008) Palma, Baleares
1564-SG/A COMUNITAT BUDISTA ZEN SOTO ESPERIT DEL DESPERTAR (11/2008) Barcelona
1581-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA - ZHEN FO ZONG MING ZHAO EN ESPAÑA (COMUNIDAD BUDISTA GRAN ILUMINACIÓN DE BUDA VERDADERO EN ESPAÑA) (12/2008) Madrid
1586-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA KADAMPA DULDZIN (12/2008) Valencia
1603-SG/A TRELOKNATH LING (01/2009) San Feliu de Guixols, Girona
1626-SG/A CÍRCULO NIGUMA (03/2009) Graus, Huesca
1647-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA ZEN JARDIN DE LUZ (03/2009) Madrid
1678-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO TECKCHEN CHÖELING CORUÑA (05/2009) CORUÑA
1698-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA AVALOKITESHVARA (07/2009) Aracena, HUELVA
1759-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO SHEDRUB CHÖELING (10/2009) XERACO, VALENCIA
1782-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO GANDEN CHÖELING CÁDIZ (11/2009) San Fernando, CADIZ
1810-SG/D FEDERACIÓN BUDISTA MAHAYANA THUBTEN THINLEY (12/2009) SEVILLA
1833-SG/A COMUNIDAD RELIGIOSA DE BUDISMO SHAMBALA (01/2010) MADRID
1922-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO GANDEN CHÖELING LA CORUÑA (05/2010) Coruña
1991-SG/A AMICS DEL DHARMA Menorca (06/2010) Mahon, Menorca
2038-SG/A SAKYA DROGÖN LING (09/1997-07/2010) Pedreguer, Alicante
2043-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO GANDEN CHÖELING (09/2010) Madrid
2065-SG/A DOJO ZEN BARCELONA KANNON CENTRE BUDISTA (11/2010) Barcelona
2148-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA TIBETANO GANDEN CHÖELING VIGO (12/2010) Vigo
2116-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA DEL INTERSER (12/2010) Valencia
2187-SG/A TEMPLO ZEN SOTO SEIKYUKI (03/2011) Barcelona
2419-SG/A CENTRO BUDISTA KAGYU THUBTEN LING (04/07/2011) Ibiza, BALEARES
2422-SG/A COMUNIDAD BUDISTA SOTO ZEN CANARIA (04/07/2011) Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canarias
2433-SG/A COMUNIDAD RELIGIOS YUN HWA DEL BUDISMO SOCIAL ESPAÑOL (28/07/2011) Barcelona
1) DAG SHANG KAGYU network (kagyupa) (1 retreat center
and 10 urban centers)
Dag Shang Kagyu at Panillo (Huesca)
2) CBSZ (Comunidad Budista Soto Zen- Soto Zen Buddhist
Main center the Temple Luz Serena (Valencia)
Zaragoza: zen dojo
3) NAGARJUNA Network (FPMT Foundation for the Preservation
of the Mahayana Tradition) gelugpa
D-L. en Oseling en 1982
Can Tirurit 1978
TULKU and problems of leadership
4) A DIFFERENT WAY: Only urban centers: Soka Gakkai
Soka Gakkai Las Palmas
Soka Gakkai Tenerife
The challenge: Buddhism is very
(too) diverse... its difficult to produce a single voice with precise shared
interests in the interlocution with the Spanish Government....
and some visible and influential groups are not included in the Buddhist Federation or even not registered...
NOT FEDERATED: New Kadampa Tradition (problems with
Nagarjunas and in general with gelugpa, very influential in FCBE)
EXAMPLE: Aryadeva at Tenerife (Canary Islands)
NOT REGISTERED: Diamondway... one of the most active groups (2007 participants on the phowa 4.000, 2010 more than 1000)
Remember Benalmadena stupa
Some of the problems of the recognition politics.... also have to do with the open question of the religious identities in Buddhism (diffuse identities in some cases)...
It's a challenge for the study but a nightmare when
the question is focused in the legal arena...
in the construction of religious plurality in Spain if we are able to find an inclusive formula for reflecting in an agreement between the Buddhist Federation and the Government the diversity and peculiarities of Buddhism it will be the best example of proactivity and openness to construct a system leaving behind centuries of anti-pluralistic focus in religious questions.